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Enterprise Structure:

Enterprise Structure is one of the HR structures whose composition depends upon its ‘Administrative’, ‘Time’ and ‘Payroll’.
Enterprise Structure comprises the ‘Client’, ‘Company Code’, ‘Personal Area’, ‘Personnel Subarea’ and the ‘Organization Key’.
Note: Client is the highest level of the enterprise structure.

Personnel Structure:
Personnel Structure describes how the employee is positioned in the organization.
Personnel Structure comprises of the ‘Employee Group’, ‘Employee Sub group’ and ‘Payroll Area’.

Structures:

Enterprise Structure                                  Personnel Structure

Client                                                                         Employee Group
Company                                                                   Employee Subgroup
Company Code                                                          Payroll Area
Personnel Area
Personnel Subarea
Organizational Key
Note: Client is the highest element in the Enterprise Structure.
 
Client :
Client is a self contained unit in the R3 system, with separate set of Master data and its own set of Tables.
Whenever we login to SAP system, we login to a specific client.
Data in the R/3 system are categorized as ‘Client-Dependent’ and ‘Client-Independent’.

Client dependent table:
Client dependent tables are always client-specific. These cannot be accessed from any other client.
A client-dependent table may have different dataset for different clients.
 Client independent table:
Client-independent table are cross-client i.e. independent of any client, so accessible from any other client and changes made in this table under one client, will be reflected in all the other clients. Hence, a client-independent table will always have same dataset for all clients.

Company and Company Code:
Company is an organization unit (this is different from the HR organization unit) which has its own balance sheet and profit and loss account.
Company Code is a four characters alpha-numeric code and defined in the FI module. Company Code is further attached to Company.

Note: Company with its two sister concerns if maintains separate balance sheet and profit & loss account then the two firms will have different company codes.
Note: A company can have multiple Company Codes. The reverse is not true.

Personnel Area:
Personnel Area is an organizational unit that represents a specific area of the enterprise and is organized according to the aspects of ‘Personnel’, ‘Time Management’ and ‘Payroll’.
It is represented by four characters alpha-numeric code.

Note : Many personnel areas can be assigned to the single (same) company code but single personnel area can not have multiple company codes.

Personnel Sub-area:
Personnel Sub-area is an organizational unit that represents a specific area of the enterprise and is organized according to aspects of ‘Personnel’, ‘Time Management’ and ‘Payroll’. It is further division of Personnel Area.
It is represented by four characters alpha-numeric code.

Organizational Key:
Organizational Key is a 14 characters alpha-numeric code which is formed by the combination of company code, personnel area, personnel Subarea.
This is used for the purpose of authorization.

Employee Group:
Employee groups are categorized based on employee/staff regulations of work and pay such as 1-Active, 2-Inactive, A-Retiree, B-Pensioner etc. It is one character alpha-numeric code.

Employee Sub-group:
Employee Subgroups are the further divisions of employee group such as under ‘Active’ employee group the possible employee subgroups could be A1–Hourly wage earner, A2–Salaried Employee OR B1-Manager, B2-Executive, B3-Supervisor etc.
It is two characters alpha-numeric code.

Payroll Area:
Payroll Area is no at all concerned with the geographical location but it is decided or created by considering following two characteristics:
- Processing cycle of payroll i.e. Weekly/Fortnightly/Monthly.
- Payment date i.e. 1st of each month for worker and 7th of each month for manager and staff.
- Earliest possible retroactive accounting period.
If any one of the above three characteristics differs, a separate payroll area would be created.
Note: Payroll area is defaulted in infotype 0001-Organizational Assignments via feature ABKRS.
Note: The Payroll Area of an employee could be changed only after the successful payroll run in the current payroll cycle of the current payroll area i.e. the change can not happen in between the payroll processing period.

Groupings:

Country Grouping - For India it is always 40. Similarly for United States it is 10.
Personnel Subarea Grouping - This is two characters numeric code. Here various rules are decided by grouping different Personnel Subareas. This is used generally in Time and Payroll module.
Employee Subgroup Grouping - This is one character numeric code. Here various rules are decided by grouping different Employee Subgroups. This is used generally in Time and Payroll module.

Assignments:
Assignments while creating Enterprise Structure & Personnel Structure:
Assignment of Company Code to Company. (Done in FI module)
Assignment of Company Code to Credit Control Area. (Done in FI module)
Assignment of Profit Center to Company Code. (Done in FI module)
Assignment of Company Code to Controlling Area. (Done in FI module)
Assignment of Personnel Area to Company Code. (Done in HR module)
Assignment of Employee Subgroup to Employee Group. (Done in HR module)

Infotype: (Table V_T582A)
An infotype is a collection of logical and/or business-related characteristics of an object or person. Its is four digit numeric code.
The range of PA infotype is from 0000-0999. The commonly used infotypes in PA are stated below.

Infogroup: (Table V_T588D)
Collection of infotypes is known as Infogroup.
For e.g. On performing Hiring action we need collection of infotypes viz. 0000, 0001, 0002, 0007, 0008 etc. This series or collection of different infotypes collectively known as ‘Infogroup’.
Note: Info group is defaulted with the help of feature IGMOD.

Personnel Actions:
Personnel Actions are the activities carried out on an employee (personnel) within the organization.
Commonly used personnel actions :
Hiring, Confirmation, Promotion, Change in pay , Transfer, Organizational Change, Separation and Re-hire
Note: Transaction code PA40 is used for performing Personnel Actions.

Personnel Action Table (V_T529A)
Action table contains the following attributes:

Personnel Actions:
All personnel actions viz. Hiring, Confirmation, Promotion, Transfer, Change in pay, Separation, Re-hire etc. are maintained here.


Employment Status:
0 - Withdrawn : Employee not with company. 2 - Retiree : Employee retired from the
(Resigned/Terminated) company
1 - Active : Employee with company but on 3 - Active : Employee with the company
long leave/absconding
Feature:
MSN20 - For Withdrawal MSN21 - For Re-entry MSN32 - For Retirement

Administrator Group:
Following are the administrator heads in PA module:
Personnel Administrator – Head of HR/Administration department.
Time Administrator – Head of Time department.
Payroll Administrator – Head of Payroll department.
Supervisor – Head of any department.
Note: Administrator Heads are defaulted with the help of feature PINCH and get reflected in infotype 0001.

Integration: (Table V_T77S0)
This is an integration table.
PLOGI-PRELI - This switch enables the default assignation of position 9999999 in the absence of any position.
PLOGI-PLOGI - Integration between Org. Mgt. and Personal Development & Training Management.
PLOGI-QUALI - Integration between Pers. Admn. ) and Personal Development ( Through infotype 0024-
Qualification).
PLOGI-ORGA - Integration between Pers. Admn and Org. Mgt. (Through infotype 0001 - Organizational
Assignment).
PLOGI-TIME - Integration between Time and Training & Event Management

Time Constraints in Infotype: (Table V_T582A):

a. Time Constraint 1 -
For the entire time the employee works with the organization, exactly one valid and non-overlapping
infotype record exists at a time.
If a new record is created the system automatically delimits the previous record. The system takes one
day prior of the start date of new record to end the validity of previous record.
E.g. Action                         Start Date               End Date
Hiring                                 01.04.2011               30.04.2011
Promotion                           01.05.2011               16.08.2011
Transfer                               17.08.2011              31.12.9999
Note: Records must have no gaps and no overlappings.
Common infotypes with time constraint 1 are 0000, 0001 and 0002.

b. Time Constraint 2 -
For the entire time the employee works with the organization exactly one valid and overlapping
infotype record exists at a time.
If a new record is created the system creates it without overlapping or delimiting the previous record.
E.g. (Infotype 0019)
Task Type                                 Date to be performed                             Date to be reminded
1st Appraisal                             01.05.2011                                              30.04.2011
 2nd Appraisal                           01.10.2011                                               30.09.2011
Note: Records must have gaps but no overlappings.
Common infotypes with time constraint 2 are 0019 and 0025

c. Time Constraint 3 -
For the entire time the employee works with the organization any number of valid records can exist at a time.
If a new record is created the system creates it without overlapping or delimiting the previous record.
E.g. (Infotype 0022)
Education Type                                         Start Date                 End Date
Xth                                                             01.07.1992                30.04.1993
XIIth                                                          01.05.1994                 30.03.1995
Note : Common infotypes with time constraint 3 are 0022, 0023 and 0024

d. Time Constraint T -
Any infotype having subtype has time constraint class T.
E.g. Infotype  Subtype
        0006 1-Permanent Address, 2-Temporary Address
         0009 1-Main Bank, 2-Other Bank
Note: Common infotypes with time constraint T are 0006 , 0008, 0009, 0014 and 0015 etc..

Integration Reports:
 RHINTE00 - Using this report, objects in OM are created from the PA infotype 0001. In doing this, following relationships are created:
- Cost center and organizational unit or position.
- Position and organizational unit, job or person.
RHINTE10 - Using this report, the objects created in OM could be transferred to tables in PA.
RHINTE20 - Using this report, it could be checked if the objects relevant for integration are set up i.e. created both in PA and OM.
RHINTE30 - Using this report data in 0001 for an employee, could be updated with the data created in OM (by executing RHINTE10).
Note: Transaction code SE38 is used to run these reports.

Dynamic Action: (Table V_T588Z)
This action helps in populating one infotype while maintaining other through PA30.
For e.g.
On maintaining infotype 0016-contract elements, infotype 0019 automatically gets populated.
On maintaining infotype 0007-Planned Working Time with time management status 1, infotype 2011-Time Events gets populated.


Additional Action:
In general two infotypes having time constraint 1 & with same subtype can not be saved on a same day, because the delimitation dates for both the infotypes would be same as a result one infotype would be overwritten by another infotype.
For e.g.
Running Hiring and Separation action for an employee on the same date is not possible.
But, to meet this scenario SAP has provided with ‘Additional Actions’ (infotype 0302). This infotype could not be maintained directly. Report RPUEVSUP is used to activate additional actions.


Authorizations:
Authorizations mean access for entry into the system/screen/table etc.
Authorizations can be based on Transaction codes, Infotypes, Organizational units etc.

Commonly used Infotypes:
0000 - Actions
0001 - Organizational Assignment
0002 - Personal Data
0003 - Payroll Status
0004 - Challenge
0006 - Addresses
0007 - Planned Working Time
0008 - Basic Pay
0009 - Bank Details
0016 - Contract Elements
0019 - Monitoring of Tasks
0021 - Family Member
0022 - Education
0023 - Previous Employers
0024 - Qualifications
0027 - Cost Distribution
0028 - Internal Medical Service
0031 - Reference Pers. No.
0041 - Date Specifications

Note: Infotype 0000 0001 and 0003 gets created during hiring action (PA40) and can’t be created via PA30 directly. 0000 and 0001 are created in front-end while 0003 in back-end.
Once created out of the three only infotype 0003 could be maintained (updated) via PA30.

Commonly used Transaction Codes:
PA10 - Personnel File PA20 - Display HR Master Data
PA30 - Maintain HR Master Data PA40 - Personnel Actions
PA41 - Change Entry/ Leaving Date PA42 - Fast Entry for Actions
PE03 - Create feature PA04 - Employee No. Range
PU00 - Delete Personal Data PU03 - Payroll Status


Commonly used Tables:
V_T582A – Infotype Characteristics V_T529A – Personnel Action table

Commonly used Features:
NUMKR - This feature defaults assignments of personnel no. based on Comp. Code, Pers. Area, Emp. Group and Emp. Subgroup.

IGMOD - This feature helps in performing two or more that two Infogroups of same action type.
The default of infogroups is set based on Comp. Code, Pers. Area, Emp. Group, Emp. Subgroup and
Action Type.

PINCH - This feature defaults the administrator head (PA administrator, Time administrator & Payroll administrator) while hiring an employee into the system.
The administrator head gets stored/reflected in infotype 0001-Org. Assignment.



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